Saturday, 12 November 2011

Facebook - United Nations For a Free Tibet - Amnesty for Dhungel ( Nepali Maoist Prime minister )

United Nations For a Free Tibet
The first meeting of the expanded cabinet of Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai on Tuesday decided to recommend amnesty for Maoist CA member Bal Krishna Dhungel to the President. Dhungel was convicted of murder and sentenced to life imprisonm...
ent last year by the Supreme Court.

The decision has come at a time when only a week ago, the ruling coalition had signed a deal to endorse the bill on Truth and Reconciliation Commission and conflict cases, to be dealt with as per the spirit of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). Soon after being elected as the PM, Bhattarai had expressed commitment to form the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and Commission on Disappeared within a month.

“This decision has questioned the honesty of the government in implementing the agreement,” says UML leader Pradip Gyawali. “The decision is against the spirit of the CPA, rule of law and international humanitarian laws.”

The seven-point agreement had come as a trust building tool to move the peace process but the cabinet decision on Tuesday has alarmed the opposition. “This decision is condemnable,” says NC chief whip Laxman Ghimire. “This is a proof that we can’t expect rule of law from this government. The government hurriedly took the decision before the Truth and Reconciliation Commission was formed to protect Dhungel, who has been convicted of murder by the Supreme Court.”

Although the Supreme Court has slapped a life sentence on Dhungel convicting him of murder of Ujjan Kumar Shrestha in 2000, he was never arrested. “It is ridiculous that the government decides to recommend amnesty for a person who was never taken in custody even after he was convicted of murder,” says senior advocate and rights activist Nutan Thapaliya. “If we don’t oppose the decision, we will be promoting impunity.”

Dhungel won the CA election from Okhaldhunga-2 in 2008. The SC verdict came last year but the court verdict was never enforced. The UCPN (Maoist) had been trying to secure amnesty for Dhungel ever since the SC verdict.

The then home minister Krishna Bahadur Mahara had sent a proposal to the Cabinet on 10 June seeking amnesty to 23 people, including Dhungel, by invoking presidential power as per Article 151 of the Interim Constitution. He claimed that Dhungel was performing his political duty as per the order from his party and the charges against him were politically motivated.

The Maoist-led government had postponed the move to withdraw all ‘wartime political cases’ after the rights organisations and the United Nations strongly opposed the idea. The UCPN (Maoist) had signed a four-point deal with Madhesi Alliance to ensure the win of the Maoist candidate Baburam Bhattarai last month, in which both the parties had agreed to withdraw cases against their cadres filed during the insurgency period and Madhes Movement.

“The government decision is the formal beginning of giving immunity to criminals,” says lawyer Govinda Sharma Bandi, who is also the coordinator of the Transitional Justice Law Committee. “The decision has made mockery of the CPA, interim constitution, rule of law and international humanitarian laws.”

He argues the CPA has no provision for amnesty to those convicted of criminal offense. “The president should not allow this to happen,” he says. “As a patron of the constitution he reserves right to intervene into this unconstitutional move of the government. He should start consultations with experts before deciding on this.”

A Maoist lawyer and CA member Ekraj Bhandari says the government decision is a ‘positive step towards the peace process’. “The SC verdict is not irrevocable and final,” he says. “If the SC does not give justice to an innocent, there is a provision of seeking amnesty from the president in any country.”

He argues that Dhungel’s case is not a criminal offense but a purely political motivated one. He argues the state jailed Dhungel for eight years based on political ideology. He says, “The state should find out who is responsible for his plight and compensate him”.

Licensing - sixthsense - License information - An open source project that allows people to create their own SixthSense Device and augment the current codebase with their own apps. - Google Project Hosting

License information
Updated Apr 15, 2011 by

GPL license version 3.0

a) GPL license version 3.0 – Any distributed project that contains within it or makes reference to any portion of the SixthSense source code has to be released with the source code under the GPL version 3.0 license or later.

b) Commercial license – If you would like to use SixthSenxe in a commercial project without releasing the source code, you can contact us for a commercial license. Please contact for more information.

Foreign Aid- A Myth called Humanitarian Intervention « A Simple Soul

Foreign Aid- A Myth called Humanitarian Intervention

I was watching a news report on CNN by Dr. Sanjay Gupta about the problems of delivering aid to Haitian earthquake victims and thought I should blog about it. The report shows Dr. Gupta in ‘humanitarian-mission-mode’ unlike traditional journalists, visiting an orphanage running out of food even though its located close to a warehouse filled with foreign aid supplies. He makes a few calls and brings aid to the orphans. He also shows visuals of food dating back to January when the earthquake happened, still undistributed and now close to expiry, and tells us how its all going to waste.

Now our normal reaction after watching such a report would be one of anger and frustration at the Haitian government authorities and the hundreds of NGO’s operating there. Why is it so difficult to get aid to the needy even after six months? Could there be other reasons?

Yes there are, if we bother to carefully analyse the report and care to look beyond just the humanitarian or the emotional aspect. It’s not like the Haitian government doesn’t care about its people or that the NGO’s are doing a lousy job. It all boils down to the economics of demand and supply and the role played by foreign aid in subverting it.

In normal times, Haiti would have been able to fend for itself, mostly if not completely, as it would have the capacity to source its food locally. But after the catastrophic earthquake, foreign aid began to arrive and was distributed among the people. Thus an artificial supply of food was created to prevent starvation. This system worked for a short period of time albeit with hiccups. But then there were more problems. Any good economist would agree that when there’s too much aid and that aid is continuously supplied to more than a million people for more than two to three months, it becomes more of a curse than a blessing. It starts wreaking havoc on a fragile local economy like Haiti, trying to recover from a major catastrophe as there won’t be many takers for the locally produced stuff which is the real backbone of such a nation’s economy. Since the foreign aid isn’t locally sourced from Haiti, such aid in turn creates a vicious circle of low demand for locally produced food resulting in financial losses for the person or company producing it which in return results in layoffs and unemployment. Thus instead of self-reliance, foreign aid actually aids the destruction of the local economy. The Haitian government knows this and has therefore chosen to support its local economy and generate employment rather than distribute foreign aid. As a consequence, the aid is rotting up in the warehouses.

Its true that foreign aid could do a lot of humanitarian good. But then it also disrupts the local economy precisely because the aid is ‘foreign’.In fact, the donations given by people all over the world as a humanitarian gesture of support for Haiti’s victims would ironically, have ended up supporting their own nations! Of course CNN wouldn’t want to show this because it wouldn’t want USAID being shown as being part of the problem rather than the solution. That explains the pure humanitarian angle of Dr. Gupta’s report which makes for great journalism but solves none of the problems which has created the crisis in the first place!

Of course this doesn’t mean any foreign aid or humanitarian intervention isn’t beneficial to a nation in crisis. In fact it should be supplied as quickly as possible to effectively tide over the crisis. But after the first few weeks, depending on the recovery efforts, foreign aid, if at all necessary, should be ideally given in the form of monetary contributions which should be used to procure locally available labour and goods. This would generate employment and enable the crisis hit population to be self-reliant making any further aid or humanitarian support unnecessary. The common sense approach to solving a humanitarian crisis would be to do everything necessary to help the victims stand up on their feet as soon as possible and not make them dependent on foreign aid and handouts for the rest of their lives. That could only happen if the UN and the international community is truly interested in humanitarian efforts instead of serving its own self interests!

SixthSense - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sixthsense is a wearable gestural interface device by Pranav Mistry, a PhD student in the Fluid Interfaces Group at the MIT Media Lab. The concept is similar to Telepointer, a neckworn projector/camera system developed by Media Lab student Steve Mann[1] (which Mann originally referred to as "Synthetic Synesthesia of the Sixth Sense").[2]



[edit] Construction and workings

The SixthSense prototype comprises a pocket projector, a mirror and a camera contained in a pendant like, wearable device. Both the projector and the camera are connected to a mobile computing device in the user’s pocket. The projector projects visual information enabling surfaces, walls and physical objects around us to be used as interfaces; while the camera recognizes and tracks users' hand gestures and physical objects using computer-vision based techniques.[3] The software program processes the video stream data captured by the camera and tracks the locations of the colored markers (visual tracking fiducials) at the tips of the user’s fingers. The movements and arrangements of these fiducials are interpreted into gestures that act as interaction instructions for the projected application interfaces. SixthSense supports multi-touch and multi-user interaction.

[edit] Example applications

This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2010)

The SixthSense prototype contains a number of demonstration applications.

  • The map application lets the user navigate a map displayed on a nearby surface using hand gestures to zoom and pan
  • The drawing application lets the user draw on any surface by tracking the fingertip movements of the user’s index finger.
  • SixthSense also implements Augmented reality; projecting information onto objects the user interacts with.

The system recognizes a user's freehand gestures as well as icons/symbols drawn in the air with the index finger, for example:

  • A 'framing' gesture takes a picture of the scene. The user can stop by any surface or wall and flick through the photos he/she has taken.
  • Drawing a magnifying glass symbol takes the user to the map application while an ‘@’ symbol lets the user check his mail.
  • The gesture of drawing a circle on the user’s wrist projects an analog watch.

[edit] Cost and license

SixthSense prototypes cost approximately $350 to build (not including the computer),[4][5][6] the main cost being the micro-projector. Mistry had announced in Nov 2009 that the source code will be released under Open Source.[7] On September 5, 2011, Mistry added a link to the SixthSense page on his personal website[8] to a Google Code SixthSense project[9].

[edit] References

Text document with red question mark.svg

This article uses bare URLs for citations. Please consider adding full citations so that the article remains verifiable in the future. Several templates and the Reflinks tool are available to assist in formatting. (October 2011)
  1. ^ "Telepointer: Hands-Free Completely Self Contained Wearable Visual Augmented Reality without Headwear and without any Infrastructural Reliance", IEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computing (ISWC00), pp. 177, 2000, Los Alamitos, CA, USA
  2. ^ "Cyborg: Digital Destiny and Human Possibility in the Age of the Wearable Computer", Steve Mann with Hal Niedzviecki, ISBN 0385658257 (Hardcover), Random House Inc, 304 pages, 2001.
  3. ^ Intelligent Image Processing, John Wiley and Sons, 384pp, 02001NOV02, ISBN 0-471-40637-6
  4. ^ sixthsense. Pranav Mistry.
  5. ^ CNet News: MIT's 6th Sense device could trump Apple's multitouch
  6. ^ New York Times - At TED, Virtual Worlds Collide With Reality
  7. ^ TED Talks - Pranav Mistry: The thrilling potential of SixthSense technology
  8. ^
  9. ^

[edit] External links

IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group

IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group

The official website for the Polar Bear Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission

The PBSG is the authoritative source for information on the world’s polar bears, and one of IUCN/SSC’s more than 100 specialist groups that work to produce and to compile scientific knowledge about the world’s species and give independent scientific advice to decision-makers and management authorities.

Explore the content to find:

  • Comprehensive and updated information on polar bears, and updated and official status information on all subpopulations
  • Documents and info from all previous meetings of the PBSG, from the first meeting in 1965 to the latest meeting
  • Searchable database of more than 1,000 polar bear articles, mostly scientific
  • References and links to further reading on threats and important conservation issues
  • Relevant polar bear news, updated continuously
  • ...and much, much more!

If you have questions about polar bears or if you have suggestions about how the website can improve, please feel free to contact us.

Latest news

IUCN - Action now to save polar bears

Action now to save polar bears

20 October 2011 | News story

 A study by IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) predicts a dramatic reduction in polar bear habitats over the next 10 to 50 years, due largely to global warming.

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species assesses Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus) as Vulnerable, with trends that suggest the population is decreasing. Polar Bears rely almost entirely on the marine sea ice environment for their survival, so much so that large scale changes in their habitat will have a devastating impact on the population.

“Now is the time to act in order to save the waning polar bear population,” says Dag Vongraven, Chair IUCN/Polar Bear Specialist Group, Norwegian Polar Institute. “If we fail to make a stand to save this species we risk having the population become severely decimated, and quite certainly they will have disappeared from many areas where they’re found today.”

Climate change poses the most substantial threat to the habitat of Polar Bears. Recent trends for sea ice extent and thickness predict dramatic reductions over coming years— declines of roughly 10 to 50% of annual sea ice are predicted by 2100. A recent study by the Norwegian Polar Institute suggests that summer sea ice in the Polar Basin might be gone in a decade, not 50 to 100 years as most models project. The long term trends reveal substantial global reductions of the extent of ice coverage in the Arctic and the length of time ice when is present each year.

“Climate change will be one of the major drivers of species extinctions in the 21st century,” says Simon Stuart, Chair of IUCN’s Species Survival Commission. “In order to slow the pace the adverse effects of climate change are having on species around the world, we must work to reduce use of energy from fossil fuels and ensure that our leaders make and adhere to strong commitments to cut greenhouse gas emissions now.”

Polar Bears reside throughout the ice-covered waters in Canada, Greenland, Norway, the Russian Federation, and Alaska in the United States, and their range is limited by the southern extent of sea ice. Polar Bears that have continuous access to sea ice are able to hunt throughout the year. However, in areas where the sea ice melts completely each summer, Polar Bears are forced to spend several months on land fasting on stored fat reserves until freeze-up.

Other population stress factors that also impact the species survival include toxic contaminants, shipping, recreational viewing and oil and gas exploration. The Polar Bear is unique among species protected under the Endangered Species Act because it is the first to be designated as threatened due to global warming.

For more information please contact:

Maggie Roth, IUCN Media Relations, m: +1 202 262 5313 e:

Open Letter on Atos ‘Healthcare’ to the BMJ and RCN « National Day of Protest Against Welfare & Housing Benefit Cuts

Open Letter on Atos ‘Healthcare’ to the BMJ and RCN

27 September 2011

Dr Michael ChamberlainChairman, BMJ (British Medical Journal) Group Board

Andrea Spyropoulos, President,Royal College of Nursing

Dear Dr Chamberlain and Andrea Spyropoulos,

Re: Atos Healthcare and parent company Atos Origin

As sick and disabled people, carers and other concerned people, including professionals, we are writing to you to urge the Royal College of Nursing and BMJ Group to immediately end your relationship with Atos, including stopping any advertising of Atos jobs or Atos the company on your websites, and not having Atos at the RCN Bulletin Jobs Fair 13-14 September, or the BMJ recruitment fair 30 September to 1 October 2011 in London.

As you know, Atos currently has a £100m a year contract with the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) to carry out examinations for disability benefits.

We are outraged that Atos is profiting from denying those of us who are sick or disabled, the benefits we need to survive and maintain our level of health.  In May, at the protest outside Atos headquarters, a number of people spoke about our experiences of the examination, being denied benefit and having to appeal to get it back.  One woman testified that her brother, who had severe depression, committed suicide after being cut off.  See:

The media have exposed more of the dire consequences of Atos’ decisions.  In February, the Daily Mirror highlighted the case of a Derbyshire man with a heart condition, found fit for work, who had to go through tribunal to appeal, then was awarded Employment and Support Allowance (ESA) but died of a heart attack the day before his next Atos exam was due.

Channel 4 News report on 27 July 2011 acknowledged what thousands have been saying: it interviewed the heartbroken partner of a critically ill man whom Atos denied his entitlement on grounds that he was ‘fit for work’ – he died less than three months later. How many more people have died following such cruel and callous treatment?  The coverage was prompted by a Parliamentary report from the Work and Pensions Committee of MPs, in which they criticised Atos.  Atos the powerful multinational has taken vindictive action against disabled people and carers’ websites where it is criticised, getting sites closed down which isolated people rely on for support.

In August, the Guardian reported that 12 Atos doctors are under investigation by the General Medical Council for improper conduct. The article referred to numerous previous cases and investigations by other bodies.

A nurse in Scotland was so shocked at Atos’s behaviour that she blew the whistle on them.  She said that people with serious lung diseases were found fit for work as long as they could sit in front of a computer, and that parents who attend with their children are automatically found fit for work.  And Atos is investigating staff, one a nurse, who used their Facebook pages to insult people as “parasitic wankers” and “down and outs”.

According to DWP figures, only 6% of those who have been assessed are placed in the Support Group of Employment and Support Allowance (ESA) which exempts them from the work conditions now attached to benefit.  (This 6% includes claimants whom the DWP has already exempted from the Atos examination because their condition is so serious.)

The Royal College of Psychiatrists and many others have strongly criticised the devastating effect the Atos exam and cuts have had on patients.

GP Margaret McCartney, writing in the BMJ, has questioned the ethics of doctors performing assessments without access to patients’ medical records, and the lack of specialist knowledge of physiotherapists and general nurses employed by Atos. (BMJ 2011; 342:d599. Full article attached.)

Since 1995, when medical assessments for incapacity benefit were privatised and taken out of public services, standards have steadily declined.  But Atos has brought this to a new low.  While none of the work tests deserve to be called a “medical” as they have no basis in patient welfare, since Atos started carrying out the ESA tests in 2008, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of people with severe illness and disability being assessed as fit for work and denied benefits.

This has been clear for some time.  In 2009, ‘Who’s Cheating Who?’, a BBC Scotland documentary, highlighted the plight of June Mitchell who applied for sickness benefit.  When examined by Atos, she complained of breathlessness and feeling tired.  She was scored zero points and found fit for work.  She went back to her GP, was diagnosed with terminal lung cancer and died shortly afterwards.

Doctors’ and nurses’ ethics are being corrupted by Atos’ offers of higher salaries and daytime reduced work hours.  Some doctors have tried to argue that their duty to patients does not apply when assessing benefit claimants on behalf of Atos.  But the General Medical Council has upheld that doctors are always bound by this duty whether seeing patients, employees (when assessing occupational health), benefit and insurance claimants, athletes, among others (see attached response from the Standards & Fitness to Practise Directorate).

As doctors and nurses are enticed into privatisation, and cases of criminal negligence and even murder in hospitals and care homes hit the headlines, patients and their loved ones are increasingly speaking out against the indifference and cruelty they face at the hands of those paid to protect them.

Claimants rightly fear that most Atos assessors are uncaring and prejudiced – they work to targets which have nothing to do with patients’ individual health needs or with the realities of the job market which sick and disabled people are being thrown into.  The stress of the Atos examinations has hastened deaths and caused a number of people to commit suicide.  For many others, it is exacerbating their already fragile health condition.

Atos kills.  Medical professionals who lend it credibility give it a licence to kill.  We call on the BMJ Group and RCN to end all association with Atos, and on doctors and nurses to defend patients and uphold our welfare.

We look forward to hearing from you.


Benefit Claimants Fightback:

Black Triangle:

Defend Welfare network

Disabled People Against Cuts:

WinVisible (women with visible and invisible disabilities:

And: (full list of signatories at 27 September 2011):

 Niki Adams, Legal Action for Women

Peter Ambrose, Visiting Professor in Housing and Health, University of Brighton

Cristel Amiss, Black Women’s Rape Action Project

Dr Frank Arnold MB ChB

Arts Against Cuts

Kate Atherton, UK Uncut

Professor Peter Beresford OBE, Brunel University and Chair, Shaping Our Lives

Sue Bott, Director, National Centre for Independent Living

Brighton & Hove TUC Unemployed Workers Centre

Brighton Disabled People Against Cuts

Linda Burnip, Debbie Jolly, Eleanor Lisney, Disabled People Against Cuts (UK)

Sara Callaway, Women of Colour in the Global Women’s Strike

Julia Cameron, Islington Disabled People Against Cuts

Dr Stephen M Carty, GP, Edinburgh

Roderick Cobley, Chair, London Autistic Rights Movement (personal capacity)

Dr Jillian Creasy, GP, Green Party councillor for Central ward, Sheffield

Liz Crow, Roaring Girl Productions

Dr Paul A. Darke, Outside Centre

Rhian Davies, Chief Executive, Disability Wales (and Rhyan Berrigan, Tania Bhutto – member, Maggie Hayes – intern, Paul Swann – policy officer, Independent Living)

Nyami Enyako, Rehabilitation Officer with Visually Impaired People,  Sensory Services, London Borough of Lambeth

Kirsten Forkert, University and College Union (personal capacity)

Mat Fraser, actor and writer

Glasgow Coalition of Resistance

Claire Glasman, WinVisible (women with visible and invisible disabilities)

Anat Greenstein, Research Institute of Health and Social Change,  Manchester Metropolitan University

Helmut Heib, National Union of Teachers (personal capacity)

Dr Marion Hersh, University of Glasgow

Sarah Hitchings, Lewes Stop The Cuts

Cat Hobbs, Oxford Save Our Services

Islington Poverty Action Group

Michael Kalmanovitz, Payday men’s network

Michael Lavalette, National Convenor, Social Work Action Network

Jill Leigh, BA, CQSW., Dip Counselling.

Lesbian Bi Trans Queer in the Global Women’s Strike

Lewisham Anti-Cuts Alliance

Phil Lockwood, Information Co-ordinator & Webmaster, Black Triangle

London Coalition Against Poverty

Nina López, Global Women’s Strike

Adam Lotun, Disability Risk Management & Reasonable Adjustments,               Consultant, Workplace Disability Adjustments

Marie Lynam, Kilburn Unemployed Workers Group

Nushra Mansuri, British Association of Social Workers

John McArdle, Black Triangle Anti-Defamation Campaign In Defence of        Disability Rights

Gillian McDonald, RMN, NHS Lothian

John McDonnell MP

Denise McKenna, Mental Health Resistance Network

Ronan McNern, Queer Resistance

Cari Mitchell, English Collective of Prostitutes

Dan Morton, Social Work Action Network ( London )

Stella Mpaka, All African Women’s Group

Rev Paul Nicolson, Chair, Zacchaeus 2000 Trust

Notts Save Our Services

Notts Uncut

Nurses Against Atos

Andrew Osborne, Cambridgeshire Against the Cuts

Anna Owens, secretary, PCS Revenue & Customs branch committee

Redhill Coalition Against Cuts

Ian Sandeman, DLA Help Group

Bill Scott, Manager, Inclusion Scotland (personal capacity)

Dave Sherry, Secretary, UNITE Scottish Housing Branch

Dr Ron Singer, president, Medical Practitioners’ Union, the doctors’ section of UNITE

Dave Skull, South East London Mad Pride

Paul Smith, Victims of Atos Corruption & Register of Shame 2

Kim Sparrow, Single Mothers’ Self-Defence

Phil Stevens, Director, Wales Council for the Blind (representing over 63 separate visual impairment groups providing support and assistance to visually impaired people – including list below**)

Russell Stronach, co-Chair, Autistic Rights Movement UK

Peter Tatchell, Peter Tatchell Foundation

The Cuts Won’t Work

Pip Tindall, Brighton Benefits Campaign

Johnny Void, Benefit Claimants Fightback

Welfare Action Hackney

Vin West, Secretary, Arfon Access Group

Alan Wheatley, Green Party TU Group Disability Spokesperson

Alison Wilde, Bangor University

Rick Wilson, Community Lives Consortium, Wales (personal capacity)

Dr Sarah Woodin, University of Leeds (personal capacity)

Dr Felicity de Zulueta, Emeritus Consultant Psychiatrist in Psychotherapy at the SLaM NHS Foundation Trust and Hon. Senior Lecturer in Traumatic Studies at KCL

**Amman Valley Blind Society, Ammanford Blind Society, Bridgevis, Brynamman Blind Society, Carmarthen Area Blind Society, Carmarthenshire County Blind Society, Ceredigion Association for the Blind, Cwmamman Blind Society, In-Sight, Llandeilo Blind Society, Llandovery & District Blind Association, Llandybie Blind Society, Llanelli Blind Society, LOOK, Merthyr Tydfil Institute for the Blind, Monmouth Visually Impaired Club, Mynydd Mawr Blind Society, North Wales Welsh Cassette Service, Partially Sighted Society, Pembrokeshire Blind Society, Radnorshire Association for the Blind, Rhondda Blind Society, Rhuddlan Borough Talking Newspaper, South Wales Talking Magazine Association, Vision Support, Visual Impairment Breconshire, Visual Impairment West Glamorgan, Visually Impaired Merthyr Tydfil, Visually Impaired Children Taking Action


Hamish Meldrum, Chairman of the British Medical Association

Dr Brian Keighley, BMJ Deputy Chairman, Scottish Council


4. Resources/Documents/CR Work capability assessment.



IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature, helps the world find pragmatic solutions to our most pressing environment and development challenges

2011 Photo Gallery

The photographs presented here represent a selection of species from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2011) and were contributed from a range of sources including IUCN SSC Specialist Group members. If you wish to use any of these photographs, please contact the photographers directly to request their permission to do so. For a wider selection of threatened species imagery, please see ARKive (, an online multi-media of the world's species.



San Jose Brush Rabbit_Sylvilagus mansuetus

The San Jose Brush Rabbit (Sylvilagus mansuetus) has been uplisted from Near Threatened in 2008 to Critically Endangered in 2011. It is endemic to San José Island, Mexico, where it is restricted to areas characterized by a high richness of brush and trees species. Predation by feral cats, habitat loss due to competition with feral goats, illegal hunting and human developments have caused a decline in the population since 1995/1996. Photo © Arturo Carrillo Reyes/ CONABIO

Red Fruit Bat-Stenoderma rufum

The Red Fruit Bat (Stenoderma rufum) is known from Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. No specimens have been recorded on the US Virgin Islands in the past 30 years, and it is also considered to be uncommon on Puerto Rico. Hurricanes and human disturbance are the main threats to the Red Fruit Bat. Site management and further research on the population size, distribution, life history and threats are needed. It is listed on the IUCN Red List as Vulnerable. Photo © Allen Kurta

Przewalskis Horse_Equus ferus

Przewalski's Horse (Equus ferus) has been downlisted from Critically Endangered toEndangered. It was considered as Extinct in the Wild from the 1960s up to the initial assessment in 1996. Thanks to a captive breeding programme combined with a successful reintroduction programme, a free-ranging wild population has been established back within its historic range in Mongolia. Hybridization with domestic horses, loss of genetic diversity and disease are the main threats to Przewalski's Horse. Photo © Patricia D. Moehlman

Red Crested Tree Rat_Santamartamys rufodorsalis

Restricted to the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, the Red Crested Tree Rat(Santamartamys rufodorsalis) is listed asCritically Endangered. Recent information suggests that it inhabits a very small area and much of the forest in its potential range has been cleared or degraded. It is however, not known how well the Red Crested Tree Rat is able to survive in such degraded or disturbed forest. Research on the population size, distribution, life history, ecology and potential threats is needed. Photo © Lizzie Noble / Fundación ProAves

European Mink_Mustela lutreola

Historically, the European Mink (Mustela lutreola) was fairly widespread across much of Europe. It is now restricted to small patches in northern Spain and western France, the Danube delta in Romania, the Ukraine and Russia. It is legally protected throughout its range, but it was heavily overexploited in the first half of the 20thcentury for the fur trade. Furthermore, habitat loss, hybridization with and local replacement by the introduced American Mink have contributed in the decline of the European Mink. It is listed asCritically Endagered. Photo © Tiit Maran

Southern White Rhino_Ceratotherium simum ssp. simum

The Southern White Rhino (Ceratotherium simum ssp. simum) is listed as Near Threatened. Representing a major conservation success, the subspecies increased from a population of less than 100 at the end of the 19th century, to an estimated wild population of over 20,000 in 2010. Poaching efforts in South Africa and Zimbabwe have, however, increased and in the absence of conservation efforts this species could become threatened very quickly. In contrast, theNorthern White Rhino (Ceratotherium simumssp. cottoni) is on the brink of extinction and is now listed as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct in the Wild). The only known wild population in the Garamba National Park and surrounding areas in the Democratic Republic of Congo is thought to have gone extinct. Efforts to find the Northern White Rhino in the wild have been unsuccessful. Globally, the speciesCeratotherium simum is currently assessed asNear Threatened. Photo © Dr Richard Emslie

Arabian Oryx_Oryx leucoryx

After the last wild individuals of the Arabian Oryx(Oryx leucoryx) were killed in the early 1970s, a captive breeding program and protective legislation were established to bring the species back from the brink of extinction. Formerly occurring throughout most of the Arabian Peninsula, the Arabian Oryx has been reintroduced to five countries. The wild population currently numbers 1000 mature individuals. Illegal live capture for sale to private collections remains a constant threat, and poaching continues to threaten individuals who wander outside of release sites. Drought and overgrazing have affected habitat quality in places, limiting potential future release sites. Despite these issues, its relatively steady wild population growth qualifies the Arabian Oryx to be downlisted in 2011 from Endangered toVulnerable. Photo © D Mallon/Antelope Specialist Group

Wallaces Tarsier_Tarsius wallacei

A newly discovered species, Wallace’s Tarsier(Tarsius wallacei) was described in 2010 from the Isthmus of Palu and from a small area southwest of Palu, Indonesia. The northern and southern populations are isolated from each other. Habitat loss and degradation due to conversion of rainforest to crash crop plantations are the main threats to Wallace’s Tarsier. Additional surveys and information on the population status are needed. This tarsier was assessed as Data Deficient. Photo © Stefan Merker/

Siau Island Tarsier_Tarsius tumpara

Endemic to Siau Island, Indonesia, the Siau Island Tarsier (Tarsius tumpara) was assessed as Critically Endangered. It is restricted to a very small area and there has been a suspected population decline of more than 80% in the past. It is locally collected as food. Furthermore, an active volcano, Mt. Karengentang, dominates more than half of its geographic range. The Siau Island Tarsier is considered to be one of the 25 most threatened primates by the IUCN Species Survival Commission Primate Specialist Group. Photo © Geoff Deehan

Northern Giant Mouse Lemur_Mirza zaza

The Northern Giant Mouse Lemur (Mirza zaza) is endemic to Madagascar, where it inhabits dry forests and the transition area to the more humid Sambirano area. It is restricted to a fairly small area in the northwestern part of the islands. While the major threats to the Northern Giant Mouse Lemur are unknown, dry forests are some of the fastest declining habitats on Madagascar. This Vulnerable lemur is able to survive in small forest fragments. Surveys to establish its actual distribution and abundance are required. Photo © Johanna Rode/Bristol Conservation and Science Foundation (

Maned Three-toed Sloth_Bradypus torquatus

The Maned Three-toed Sloth (Bradypus torquatus) is restricted to the wet tropical forest on the Atlantic coast of Brazil. While it is generally not actively pursued, individuals might sometimes fall victim to subsistence hunting by local people. Furthermore, habitat loss and degradation, due to conversion of forest to pasture land, clearing for coal production and city sprawl, is ongoing in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The Maned Three-toed Sloth is legally protected in Brazil, but enforcement is often ineffective. This sloth is therefore listed as Vulnerable. Photo ©


Great Indian Bustard_Ardeotis nigriceps

Standing a metre in height and weighing in at nearly 15 kg, the Great Indian Bustard(Ardeotis nigriceps) was once widespread across the grasslands of India and Pakistan, but is now restricted to small and isolated fragments of remaining habitat. Hunting, disturbance, habitat loss and fragmentation have caused a population reduction of 82% over the past 47 years; today there may be as few as 250 individuals. The species has thus been uplisted to Critically Endangered. Current levels of hunting may result in the extinction of the western Indian population in the next 15-20 years. Photo © Asad R. Rahmani

Bahama Oriole_Icterus northropi

Endemic to the Bahamas, the Bahama Oriole(Icterus northropi) is listed as Critically Endangered owing to the effects of introduced species, as well as infrastructural and agricultural development. Recent survey work suggests the population could be as low as 180 individuals. The orioles live in mature woodland, and nest in coconut palms. Lethal yellowing disease of these palms has wiped out nesting trees in areas where the oriole was previously common but is now absent. In addition, the oriole is also threatened by the recent arrival of the Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis), a brood parasite that lays its eggs in other species’ nests. Photo © Carleton Ward/Bahamas National Trust


Paroedura masobe

Endemic to Madagascar, Paroedura masobe is subject to active exploitation for the international pet trade, including both legal and illegal collections. The conversion of low elevation humid forest to farmland and timber extraction are major threats to this species’ habitat. Monitoring of the international pet trade and protection of the habitat are needed to ensure the survival of this Endangered species. Photo ©Tony Gamble

Calumma tarzan

Calumma tarzan entered the IUCN Red List in 2011 as Critically Endangered. It is restricted to the lowland moist forests of Madagascar, parts of which are affected by slash-and-burn farming and selective logging. It is not known to occur within any of the existing protected areas, but it has been collected from a forest at Ambatofotsy, which is being established as a protected area. Photo © Jörn Köhler

Uroplatus malama

Uroplatus malamais is a leaf-tailed gecko endemic to southeastern Madagascar. It is likely to be attractive to collectors and small collection quotas have been issued in the past by Malagasy authorities. This gecko relies on relatively intact forest for survival and forest clearance for rice cultivation is a threat to its habitat. Protection and management of the area and the habitat where this Vulnerable species occurs are required. Photo © Fano Ratsoavina

Xenotyphlops grandidieri

Xenotyphlops grandidieriis known form a single site at Baie de Sakalava, in northern Madagascar. It is a burrowing snake that has been found in forested and shrubby dunes. Deforestation for charcoal production and development of mining (e.g., for sand) are threats to its habitat. Protection of its dune habitat is needed as a matter of urgency to limit the impacts of human activities on this Critically Endangered snake. Photo © Frank Glaw

Peters Bright Snake_Liophidium mayottensis

Peters' Bright Snake (Liophidium mayottensis) is endemic to Mayotte, where it is found in natural forests and in plantations. Many forest areas on the island are degraded and the suitable habitat of this species is heavily fragmented. The Small Indian Civet, an introduced carnivore, probably also feeds on this snake. Peters’ Bright Snake is therefore classified as Endangered. Photo © Frank Glaw

Island Day Gecko_Phelsuma nigristriata

Endemic to Mayotte, the Island Day Gecko(Phelsuma nigristriata) has been almost exclusively observed in pristine humid forest at 100 m asl or above. Most remaining forest areas on the island are protected, but it is plausible that ongoing degradation of pristine forest will soon extend to the altitudes where this species occurs. It is therefore listed as Vulnerable. Photo © Oliver Hawlitschek

Motagua Spiny-tailed Iguana_Ctenosaura palearis

Endemic to eastern Guatemala, the Motagua Spiny-tailed Iguana (Ctenosaura palearis) is threatened by habitat loss due to agriculture and the increased mortality of cacti (their main food and shelter source), illegal trade and overharvesting. It is included on CITES Appendix II and all sales of this iguana outside of Guatemala are illegal as no exportation permits have been issued by the government to date. The illegal trade (mainly sold to Greece, Germany and the USA) is thought to be the main cause of local declines of iguanas in some localities. It is currently listed as Endangered. Photo © Daniel Ariano

Navassa Rhinoceros Iguana_Cyclura onchiopsis

The Navassa Rhinoceros Iguana (Cyclura onchiopsis) was endemic to Navassa Island, West Indies. It presumably occurred throughout the island, however it has not been recorded since July 1878. It is now considered to beExtinct. The Navassa Rhinoceros Iguana was probably threatened by non-native predators, exploitation for human consumption, and non-native competitors which destroyed the vegetation. Photo © Robert Powell

Bog Turtle_Glyptemys muhlenbergii

The Bog Turtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) is endemic to the eastern USA, where a great part of its suitable habitat has been lost. It was recently uplisted from Endangered to Critically Endangered as it is likely that the overall population reduction exceeds 80%. The Bog Turtle is fully protected throughout its range, however it remains in small but high demand in the pet trade due to its small size, attractive colouration and reputed rarity. Key conservation measures require focus on protecting the remaining habitat from destruction, degradation, pollution and conversion, and appropriate management with regard to vegetation succession and invasives to prevent further fragmentation of the population. Photo ©Jonathan Mays

Wood Turtle_Glyptemys insculpta

Endemic to North America, the Wood Turtle(Glyptemys insculpta) was recently uplisted from Vulnerable to Endangered. It is valued as a pet and while it is protected in most of its range, illegal trade in wild-collected and captive-bred individuals still occurs. Predation by racoons and habitat destruction and degradation due to residential and recreational developments are additional threats to this species. It is therefore likely that the past and ongoing population decline exceeds 50%. Photo © James Harding, Michigan State University

Eastern Box Turtle_Terrapene carolina

The Eastern Box Turtle (Terrapene carolina) is native to Canada, the USA and Mexico. It was uplisted from Low Risk/ Near Threatened toVulnerable as the population decline probably exceeds 30%. The causes for this decline are not fully understood but comprise a mixture of habitat destruction and degradation, direct mortality from vehicle strikes, predation and collection for the pet trade. The Eastern Box Turtle is included in CITES Appendix II and is subject to a variety of State legislation and regulations in Canada and the United States. Photo © Jonathan Mays

Anolis pogus

Found only on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin, Anolis pogus is presently confined to ravines in the interior uplands of the island. It previously also occurred on Anguilla island, where it is now apparently extinct. Once described as locally abundant, little is known about the population today. Its extinction on Anguilla is believed to be the result of introduced mammalian predators and habitat loss and degradation. Research and monitoring are needed to determine the current threats and ensure future stability of this Vulnerable lizard. Photo © Robert Powell

Proboscis Anole_Anolis proboscis

The Proboscis Anole (Anolis proboscis) is endemic to the western slopes of the Andes in Pichincha, Ecuador. It is named for its proboscis, an appendage extending from its snout, which is used in courtship. Habitat loss due to logging, grazing and other human pressures, is the main threat to thisEndangered species. It is likely that these are causing a decline in the population. Research and monitoring of population trends are therefore recommended. Photo © Jonathan Losos

Flap-necked Chameleon_Chamaeleo dilepis

The Flap-necked Chameleon (Chamaeleo dilepis) is widely distributed and relatively abundant across southern and eastern Africa. It is collected for the international pet trade with the greatest demand coming from the USA. There are currently no observable effects of removal of individuals in the wild. It is listed as Least Concern, but careful attention should be paid to detect early warning signs of population decline. The Flap-necked Chameleon is listed under Appendix II of CITES. Photo © Krystal A. Tolley

Spiny-flanked Chameleon_Trioceros laterispinis

The Spiny-flanked Chameleon (Trioceros laterispinis) is endemic to Tanzania, where it is only known from the Eastern Arc Mountains. It I collected for the international pet trade, but at fairly low numbers (49 individuals between 2003 and 2008). The main threats to the Spiny-flanked Chameleon are habitat loss and degradation due to conversion of its forest habitat to agricultural and plantation land. It is included in CITES Appendix II. It is currently listed as Endangeredand conservation measures are required to prevent further habitat loss. Photo © Krystal A. Tolley

Northern Pale-hipped Skink_Celatiscincus similis

The Northern Pale-hipped Skink(Celatiscincus similis) is endemic to the Province Nord, New Caledonia, where it inhabits closed forests at both low and high elevations. Habitat loss due to expanding nickel mines (especially on the Taom massif), agriculture and wild fires, is the main threat to this skink. Furthermore, there is ongoing habitat degradation and increasing predation pressure from introduced mammals, such as deer, pigs and cats. The Northern Pale-hipped Skink is therefore listed as Endangered. It is legally protected in both the Province Nord and Province Sud. Photo © Tony Whitaker

Gracile Burrowing Skink_Graciliscincus shonae

Endemic to Province Sud in New Caledonia, theGracile Burrowing Skink (Graciliscincus shonae) is listed as Vulnerable. This uncommon species is legally protected in Province Sud and Province Nord, and it is found in several small reserves. However, loss and fragmentation of habitat from clearance of closed forests (particularly by the rapidly expanding mining industry in the Grand Sud and Tontouta Valley area) and from wildfires in maquis shrublands are major threats to the Gracile Burrowing Skink. Photo © Tony Whitaker

Eurydactylodes occidentalis

Eurydactylodes occidentalis is a New Caledonian endemic which is restricted to sclerophyll forest and closed mesophyll forest on the central west coast of Grand Terre. The lowlands of this area have almost been totally denuded by conversion to pastoral farmland and only small isolated patches of suitable habitat remain. Eurydactylodes occidentalis is legally protected, but its distinctive chameleon-like appearance and diurnal activity make it a potential target for illegal collection and trafficking. It has been assessed as Critically Endangered. Photo © Tony Whitaker

Crested Gecko_Rhacodactylus ciliatus

The Crested Gecko (Rhacodactylus ciliatus) has a restricted distribution and only occurs in Grand Terre and Ile des Pins, New Caledonia. This nocturnal gecko has been assessed asVulnerable. The main threat within its range is habitat loss associated with logging, wildfires and the clearance of forests for agriculture. Predation by rodents and the impact of the introduced ant Wasmannia auropunctata are other potential threats to the Crested Gecko. Monitoring of the current population and measures to control impacts of invasive species are needed. Photo © Tony Whitaker


Blessed Poison Frog_Ranitomeya benedicta

The Blessed Poison Frog (Ranitomeya benedicta) is distributed throughout the lowland forests of Pampas del Sacramento, in San Martín and Loreto Regions in northeastern Peru. Subsistence farming, logging and agroindustry will reduce the amount of suitable habitat substantially over the coming years. Harvesting (both legal and illegal) for the international pet trade is another threat to this Vulnerablespecies. The Blessed Poison Frog was smuggled for the international pet trade in 2007 and 2008 and legally exported in 2009. Photo ©Jason L. Brown

Summers’ Poison Frog_Ranitomeya summersi

Summers’ Poison Frog (Ranitomeya summersi) is known from the central Huallaga Canyon and surrounding semiarid valleys in northern Peru. Legal export of this species began in 2001, however the majority of individuals found in the pet trade are of illegal origin. Habitat loss is another threat to thisEndangered frog. Encroachment of small-holder farms and agroindustry are causing rapid deforestation and much of its habitat is in close proximity to human settlements. Photo © Jason L. Brown

Dendrotriton chujorum

Dendrotriton chujorum is restricted to three sites in the northern region of the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, Guatemala. It generally inhabits mountain slopes covered by small remnants of primarily hardwood (pine-oak) forest. This habitat has been degraded due to small-holder farming and timber and firewood harvest by local people. Preservation of the only known remaining habitat is a priority for this Critically Endangeredsalamander's conservation. Photo © Todd Pierson

Atelopus patazensis

Atelopus patazensis is known only form the type locality in northwestern Peru, at an elevation of ca 2,500-3,000 m asl. A drastic population decline, estimated to be more than 80% over the last ten years, has been inferred from the apparent disappearance of most of the population. Only two individuals of this species were located in extensive surveys in 2010. This decline in Atelopus patazensis might be due to chytridiomycosis and/or a combination of mining activities and the chytrid fungus. More research on this Critically Endangered species’ population status, natural history and threats are urgently needed to ensure that proper conservation measures can be put in place. Photo © Alessandro Catenazzi (

Sri Lanka Petite Shrub-frog_Pseudophilautus tanu

Endemic to Sri Lanka, the Sri Lanka Petite Shrub-frog (Pseudophilautus tanu) is listed asEndangered. This is thought to be a common frog that is restricted to forest-edges. It is currently only known from two areas, which are under constant pressure from human activities such as encroachment by tea growers and urban development, as well as the usage of biocides and fertilizers. It is likely that the Sri Lanka Petite Shrub-frog is more widespread in other open habitats close to patches of rainforest. More research on its actual distribution, population status and potential threats is needed. Photo © Milivoje Krvavac, Department of Biology and Ecology,UNS

Green Eyed Bushfrog_Raorchestes chlorosomma

The Green Eyed Bushfrog (Raorchestes chlorosomma) is only known from Munnar, Kerala, within the Western Ghats mountain range in India. The area where it occurs has been highly degraded due to large-scale tea, eucalyptus and wattle plantations. While the Green Eyed Bushfrog appears to be adaptable, its tolerance threshold to habitat disturbance is not fully understood. More research on its distribution, population status, natural history and threats is needed. It was assessed as Critically Endangered. Photo © S.D. Biju

Resplendent Shrubfrog_Raorchestes resplendens

Endemic to Kerala, India, the Resplendent Shrubfrog (Raorchestes resplendens) is restricted to a very small area on the Anamudi summit. The population consists of less than 300 individuals and is thought to be declining. However, the cause for the observed declines remains unknown. The Resplendent Shrubfrog occurs in a highly protected national park, where no observable threats have been recorded. More research on the threats, population and natural history of this Critically Endangered frog are urgently needed. Photo © S.D. Biju


Reef Manta Ray_Manta alfredi

The Reef Manta Ray (Manta alfredi) has a circumtropical and sub-tropical distribution, existing in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Within this broad range, however, actual populations appear to be sparsely distributed and highly fragmented. The main threat is fishing, whether targeted or incidental. The meat is often sold as food, the liver for local medicine and oil, and branchial filter plates (gill rakers) fetch high prices in Asia and are used for Chinese medicinal products. Aside from directed fisheries, manta rays are also incidentally caught as bycatch in both large-scale fisheries and small netting programs. Reef Manta Rays are often caught and transported to aquariums for use in display tanks. The Reef Manta Ray is therefore listed as Vulnerable. Photo © Andrea Marshall

Giant Manta Ray_Manta birostris

The largest living ray, the Giant Manta Ray(Manta birostris), has a wide range in tropical and semi-tropical shelf waters throughout the world’s major oceans. Within its broad range populations are sparsely distributed and highly fragmented. The Giant Manta Ray has a high value in international trade and directed fisheries exist that target this species. Artisanal fisheries also exist that target this Vulnerable species for food and medicine. Photo © Andrea Marshall

Blue Marlin_Makaira nigricans

The Blue Marlin (Makaira nigricans) is often found in wide open blue waters in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea. It is commonly caught as bycatch in longline fisheries and there is also a direct recreational catch in many areas. It is not considered to be well managed in any parts of its range and protection efforts have continued to decrease in recent years as deeper longline gear is introduced. The Blue Marlin is therefore listed as Vulnerable. Photo © Russell Nelson

Southern Bluefin Tuna_Thunnus maccoyii

Found in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans, the Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) has been intensively fished since the early 1950s. This species is an important commercial species, especially off Australia; the meat is highly prized for the sashimi markets of Japan. Estimated spawning stock biomass has declined approximately 85% over the past 36 years and there is no sign that the spawning stock is rebuilding, leading to a listing asCritically Endangered. Implementation of effective conservation and management measures are urgently needed. Photo © Ian Gordon Auscape International

Knipowitschia mrakovcici

Knipowitschia mrakovcici is only found in Lake Visovac, Croatia. The population is experiencing a massif decline, but the reasons for this decline are not fully understood. Pollution from nearby towns is a potential threat. This freshwater fish is currently listed as Critically Endangered. There is ongoing research to determine the causes of the population decline. Photo © Jörg Freyhof

Sea Trout_Salmo trutta

The Sea Trout (Salmo trutta) is commonly harvested for human consumption and for sport fishing. This freshwater fish is widespread across much of Europe and has been introduced to North and South America, Africa, parts of Asia, New Zealand and Australia. Localized threats include water pollution and impacts from salmon farming. It was assessed a Least Concern. Photo © Andreas Hartl

Pacific Hagfish_Eptatretus stoutii

Endemic to the northeastern Pacific, the Pacific Hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) was assessed asData Deficient. It is heavily targeted in at least half of its range for the Asian leather market. No conservation measures are in place, but regulations to manage fishing efforts are in the process of being implemented. Photo © Kevin Lee

Broadgilled Hagfish_Eptatretus cirrhatus

The Broadgilled Hagfish (Eptatretus cirrhatus) is found from shallow to deep waters of Australia and New Zealand. It is the most common hagfish species in this region and can be locally abundant. The range of this Least Concernspecies could be larger than the currently known. No major threats seem to be affecting the Broadgilled Hagfish. Photo © Paddy Ryan/Ryan Photographic


Cloud Copper_Aloeides nubilus

The Cloud Copper (Aloeides nubilus) is known from only a few small colonies in Mpumulanga Province, South Africa. Plantation forestry and encroachment of the invasive tree speciesAcacia mearnsii have caused declines in the habitat of this rare and extremely localized butterfly, in turn leading to population declines. These threats will likely cause further population declines into the future. The species is classified as Endangered. Photo © G.A. Henning

Spenglers Freshwater Mussel_Margaritifera auricularia

Originally widespread throughout Europe, todaySpengler's Freshwater Mussel (Margaritifera auricularia) is only found in France and Spain. This species has declined by more than 90% over the past century, due to direct exploitation for the nacre in its shell (used for knife hilts and buttons) and extensive modification of the slow-flowing large rivers where these mussels live. Dams are particularly damaging, causing water siltation and preventing migration of the host fish this species depends on during its early life stages. Reproduction is nearly non-existent, such that most subpopulations of this Critically Endangered mussel will likely disappear in the next 20-50 years. More time is required to confirm if existing conservation efforts are effective. Photo © Vincent Prié

Plicate Rocksnail_Leptoxis plicata

The freshwater Plicate Rocksnail (Leptoxis plicata) was once distributed in several rivers in the state of Alabama, United States. Only one population remains, restricted to a short reach of the Black Warrior River. The dramatic 90% reduction in this snail's distribution was caused by extensive habitat modification resulting from multiple human activities; a proposed impoundment would bisect the only remaining population. A recovery plan has been drafted and captive breeding of this Critically Endangeredsnail has shown some success; further reintroductions and habitat protection are necessary. Photo © Thomas Tarpley/Alabama Aquatic Biodiversity Center

Violet-spotted Reef Lobster_Enoplometopus debelius

Endemic to the western Pacific, the Violet-spotted Reef Lobster (Enoplometopus debelius) is a very popular and highly prized species in the aquarium trade. Specimens are collected in the wild (mainly in Indonesia) and are sold for $25 USD. No regulations to manage the collection of wild specimens are in place and it is unknown if harvesting has any significant effects on this species’ population. The Violet-spotted Reef Lobster is therefore listed as Data Deficient. Further research is urgently needed to establish its current population size and to determine the effects of harvesting on its population. Photo © Gary Bell/

Mediterranean Slipper Lobster_Scyllarides latus

The Mediterranean Slipper Lobster(Scyllarides latus) is found throughout most of the Mediterranean Sea and in the central eastern Atlantic Ocean. It has become rare along the European coast and in the Atlantic Ocean as a result of intensive harvesting; in some areas, such as Italy and the Azores, it may be too late for the species to successfully recover. Fortunately, it is still common in the eastern Mediterranean and benefits from some conservation legislation aimed to prevent further declines. More precise data on the status of stocks are needed before an accurate assessment of this Data Deficient species can be made. Photo © Dominique Horst

Banded Spiny Lobster_Panulirus marginatus

Endemic to Hawaii, the Banded Spiny Lobster(Panulirus marginatus) generally occurs under rocks and crevices on rocky bottom in shallow waters. It was threatened by overharvesting in the past throughout its range, where declines of over 80% in catch per unit effort data have been recorded (mid 1970s to 1999). However, the Banded Spiny Lobster fishery was closed in 2000 and it now also occurs in a protected area. The current status of the population is unknown and it is therefore listed as Data Deficient. Photo © Keoki Stender

Chapa_Iberus gualtieranus

Endemic to mainland Spain, the Chapa (Iberus gualtieranus) generally inhabits limestone mountain areas of rocky substrate and sun exposure sub-desert environments with sparse vegetation. Irrational and uncontrolled catches made in recent decades are derived from its great gastronomic appreciation. Intrinsic factors, such as poor recruitment and population reproduction, and habitat loss due to highway construction and fires, are additional threats to the Chapa. Appropriate management of catches and reinforcement of populations with captive bred individuals are recommended. The Chapa was assessed as Endagered. Photo © Original:

Leptaxis minor

Endemic to the Pico Alto complex on Santa Maria Island, Azores, Leptaxis minor has been assessed as Endangered. It is relatively uncommon and restricted, but it has adapted to secondary forests as a habitat. Pico Alto is a protected are, however the secondary forest is likely to be cut down. At lower altitudes, cattle is let to enter the forest thus destroying much of the forest by grazing and trampling. Monitoring of the habitat is needed. Photo © Antonio Manuel de Frias Martins

Moreletina horripila

Moreletina horripila is found on São Miguel, Terceira, São Jorge, Pico and Faial islands, Azores. It inhabits drier areas of secondary forests, where is can be commonly found under leaves, logs and loose stones. It is considered abundant on São Miguel and no major threats exist that are likely to affect this snail across its range. Moreletina horripila has therefore been assessed as Least Concern. Photo © Antonio Manuel de Frias Martins

Suboestophora hispanica

Endemic to the Spanish provinces of Alicante and Valencia, Suboestophora hispanica was uplisted from Low Risk/ Near Threatened toVulnerable. Its habitat, pine and evergreen oak forest and Mediterranean shrubs, is threatened by fires and urban expansion (mainly housing). Furthermore, Suboestophora hispanica is also collected for shell specimens. Measures to protect the habitat and its population need to be put in place. Photo © Alberto Martínez-Ortí

Helix pomatia

Perhaps the best known and most often cultivated land snail species, Helix pomatia is widespread in central and eastern Europe, and locally abundant. A popular source of food throughout Europe, it is heavily targeted for human consumption. Fortunately, its extensive cultivation floods the market with farm-raised specimens, reducing the impact of collections in the wild. Wild populations are currently considered to be stable, leading this species to be assessed as Least Concern. Photo © Jangle1969, "Weinbergschnecke Paarung.jpg" via Wikimedia Commons. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.


Onion Plant_Crinum thaianum

Endemic to southern Thailand, the Water Onion(Crinum thaianum) is confined to isolated patches on a few rivers and streams. Land use changes have caused dramatic changes to the ecology of the rivers where this species is found. Dredging for the removal of sediment and rock for construction and land reclamation purposes, along with diversion of the rivers and streams for agricultural purposes, have left the population very fragmented and declining. The Water Onion is also popular with aquarists as it is easy to maintain, and the bulb is used to produce a cream for softening the skin. Recent local conservation efforts will hopefully help improve the status of this Endangered plant. Photo ©Somsak Soonthornnawapha

Coco de mer_Lodoicea maldivica

The Coco de Mer (Lodoicea maldivica) is endemic to Praslin and Curieuse islands, Seychelles.  It produces the largest seed of any plant in the world, weighing up to 30 kg. It was used as a medicinal plant in the past (it was believed to possess aphrodisiac powers) and the highly-prized seeds are still sold as souvenirs to tourists. Kernels are frequently harvested illegally and current harvesting levels are thought to be unsustainable. Fires, introduced taxa (e.g. invasive plants, pathogens and parasites) and infrastructure development are additional threats to the Coco de Mer. It has therefore been assessed as Endangered. Photo © Peter Wyse Jackson

Balfours Pandanus_Pandanus balfourii

The Balfour’s Pandanus (Pandanus balfourii) is endemic to the coastal areas of the granitic islands of the Seychelles. It used to be one of the dominant species, but some of its habitat in the coastal areas has been destroyed due to human development such as settlements and tourism. Is has been assessed as Vulnerable. Photo ©Justin Gerlach

Chinese Water Fir

Formerly widespread in China, Viet Nam and Lao PDR, most of the natural Chinese Water Fir(Glyptostrobus pensilis) plants in China and Viet Nam have been killed due to expanding agriculture; logging, construction of fish ponds and clearing for food crops are secondary threats. No wild plants are known to remain in China, though hope remains that a few individuals may still survive. The remaining subpopulations in Viet Nam and Lao PDR are small, and very few (if any) trees are producing viable seed; the majority of trees in Viet Nam are in decline. Given current trends this Critically Endangered species could well become Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct in the Wild) in the near future. Photo © Phan Ke Loc

Wollemi Pine_Wollemia nobilis

The Wollemi Pine (Wollemia nobilis) was discovered in 1994 and is the only species in the genus, which had previously only been known from the fossil record dating back to the Cretaceaous. It is only found in Wollemi National Park in the Blue Mountains, New South Wales, Australia. Exotic pathogens such as Phytophthora cinnamonii, the introduction of exotic weeds, trampling and other forms of disturbance associated with unauthorised access are threats to the Wollemi Pine. It continues to be assessed as Critically Endangered. Photo © Craig Hilton-Taylor

Goodyera macrophylla

Very local and extremely rare, Goodyera macrophylla is endemic to a few ravines in central and northern parts of Madeira, Portugal. The population is estimated to total less than 50 mature individuals. The main threats to this orchid are trampling, collapse of terrain, landslides and invasion by a species; it could also be affected by tourism and plant collection. Fortunately, the species is protected under a number of European and international conservation Conventions, and its habitat is protected in the Natural Park of Madeira. Although the population is currently considered stable, this orchid’s tiny population size has led to a listing as Critically Endangered. Photo ©Francisco Fernandes

Snowdrop_Galanthus nivalis

The Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) has an extensive distribution across much of Europe. However, due to widespread naturalisation there is some uncertainty concerning its natural distribution. International trade is restricted by CITES, but at a locale scale the Snowdrop is still harvested for a range of uses, for example, as an ornamental plant, as medication or as poison. Although the Snowdrop has a wide distribution, it is listed as Near Threatened due to the fact that it seems to be locally threatened across much of its range. Photo © R. Wilford

Pico de El Sauzal_Lotus maculatus

Pico de El Sauzal (Lotus maculatus) is endemic to the island of Tenerife, the Canary Islands, Spain. It has been estimated that less than 50 individuals of this species remain. The main threats are trampling, collection, predation, and other human generated impacts. Grazing was the main threat in the past almost leading to its extinction, but it is reported to be eradicated from the known location. It was assessed asCritically Endangered. Photo © A. Santos

Centranthe À Trois Nervures_Centranthus trinervis

The Centranthe À Trois Nervures(Centranthus trinervis) is endemic to Corsica and the remaining populations consist of only 140 individuals. In 1994, a fire destroyed approximately 80% of the population, but it regenerated afterwards. The Centranthe À Trois Nervures has been dowlisted from Critically Endangered to Endangered. It is now protected at a regional, national and international level, however, due to its restricted range and small population size, a combination of natural and anthropogenic factors could cause a rapid decline, potentially even leading to the extinction of the species. Photo © Antonie van den Bos for

Trevo de Quatro Folhas_Marsilea batardae

Endemic to the Iberian Peninsula, the Trevo de Quatro Folhas (Marsilea batardae) is anEndangered freshwater plant. It grows in temporarily flooded areas, such as the banks of streams, at low altitudes. The main threats to this plant are the destruction and degradation of standing water bodies, and the modification of hydrological networks, such as the construction of dams. For example, the construction of the Alqueva dam in Portugal has caused the destruction of five known populations. Photo ©Richard Lansdown

Beta nana

Beta nana is endemic to the mountains of southern and central Greece. This Vulnerableplant is restricted to a very small area (less than 1 km2) at fairly high altitudes. Overgrazing and rising temperatures due to climate changes are thought to be the main threats to B. nana. It is listed in Annex I of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. However, active in situ conservation, including population and habitat monitoring, is needed to ensure the survival of this species. Photo © Dr. Lothar Frese

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